Sunday, July 12, 2020
The Rise of Wearables Why carry a laptop, tablet, or even a phone for Internet access when you could log on through your glasses or wristwatch? No longer a solely a futurist trope, electronics and software firms are in a race to develop industry-defining models of what is known as wearable tech or wearables. This disruptive trend may one day render the modern day PC, laptop, tablet, and smartphone obsolete, and make Internet connectivity simply a matter of getting dressed.Wearable technology (wearables) is defined as the integration of computing and wireless technologies with clothing, jewelry and accessories. While more rudimentary forms of wireless tech, such as the calculator wristwatch, have existed since the 1980s, with advances in miniaturizing circuitry and wireless technologies, wearables have significantly increased the existing and potential applications of the concept. © Shutterstock.com | scyther5In this article, we will explore the world of wearable tech, specifically: 1) brief history of wearables, 2) trends and development in wearables, 3) benefits of wearables, 4) applications of wearables, 5) notable current example of wearables, 6) challenges presented by wearables, and 7) the future of wearables.BRIEF HISTORY OF WEARABLESWearable tech may seem like a new phenomenon, but its origins actually lie in the 1960s and 1970s, with wearables designed and used to cheat at gambling. In 1961, MIT professor Edward Thorp created a wearable device to cheat at roulette, and in 1972, Kevin Taft created one to cheat at blackjack. In 1975, the calculator wristwatch was marketed and sold to the public. But wearables did not expand further until 1987, with the advent of the digital hearing aid. As Internet technologies took proliferated throughout the next decade, 1994 saw the invention of the first wireless wearable webcam, 2000 saw the sale of the first Blue tooth headset, and 2006 saw the release of the Nike iPod, which synced iPod user to their movements.TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN WEARABLESThe largest categories of wearables currently on the consumer market are fitness and healthcare monitors. Most new developments center around the type of clothing or accessory, as well as the level of functionality. And fashion designers are beginning to get in on the act, with recent fashion shows incorporating stylish and functional clothing. Wearables research often deals with new materials that may be used to create wearables, such as graphene, a pliable and efficient electricity conductor. Miniaturization plays heavily into wearables, as well for obvious reasons.Experts believe that the market is young and growing. Transparency Market Research, a marketing research firm, predicts that the market will grow to $5.8 billion in 2018 from $750 million in 2012. Juniper Research, another marketing research firm, predicts that the market will grow to 4 19 billion by 2018.However, other experts are concerned about how disruptive wearables will be, as one-third of Americans who own a wearable device, stops wearing it within six months. Some counter this is because the market is still relatively new. Others wonder how devices with less functionality than a smartphone will compete with a smartphone.BENEFITS OF WEARABLESDespite the legitimate concerns, wearables provide users with a number of benefits including:Physical activity and fitness monitoring;Enhanced social networking: through unique wearables user communities, like Googleâs âGlass Explorersâ, or Fitbitâs active online community;Personal safety: through communications interfaces for emergency usage featured on some wearables;Healthcare monitoring: through monitoring of patient vital signs either in hospital or remotely by specially designed wearables; andGeneral increased wireless connectivity.APPLICATIONS OF WEARABLESWearables have broader applications then just fitn ess and health. And while consumer applications drive the market, many of the design, usability, manufacturing, and production are adaptable to commercial, military, and medicinal applications as well.The Future Of Wearable Technology Commercial Wearable tech has many enterprise-level applications for businesses. An April 2014 survey of businesses indicated that the majority did not plan to implement wearables on an enterprise level, but that even of those that did not, they expected that, if they did, the benefits would include âimproved communication, enhanced productivity, and better customer relations.â A recent University of London study confirmed this, concluding, after a month-long experiment, that wearables can boost productivity and job satisfaction in the workplace.Enterprise-level applications include enhancing resource access to, and tracking the whereabouts of, remote workers; enhanced communication (through wireless headsets and wristbands, for moving employees suc h as retail workers); augmented vision (through smart glasses, used for example, in the construction industry, to âseeâ inside walls); and increased payment options (through a wristwatch, for example). Further wearables have considerable industry-specific applications for uniformed professions, such as law enforcement and emergency medical technicians.But perhaps the biggest benefit of wearables for business is the data that wearables collect. Such consumer information could be invaluable to marketing and sales departments. This application of wearable tech has doubtlessly influenced the entry of large firms, such as Google, Intel, Qualcomm, and Samsung.ConsumerThere are a number of consumer wearables currently on the market, ranging from smart wristwatches to smart contact lenses to sensor-integrated clothes. Examples include XOEyeâs XOne camera glasses; CSRâs smart jewelry, which can be worn around the neck and blinks when the wearer receives a phone call; SafeNecklace, wh ich can monitor kids during field trips; OMSignalâs spandex shirt, which can monitor a wearerâs vital functions Lumoâs posture correcting belt, the Bluetooth LumoBack belt; the Pebble Steel smartwatch, on which the wearer can receive text messages and emails; and Sensoriaâs electronic anklet which tracks the wearerâs speed and distance, just to name a few. There are even electronic tattoos under development. However, the consumer market for wearables is extremely fragmented.Military © Flickr | PEOSoldierOne wearables enthusiast is the U.S. military, which sees the technology providing enhanced efficiency for soldiers. Wearables that can monitor the vital signs of soldiers can be the difference between life and death. Other wearables, in the form of helmets, overlay information over a soldierâs eyes to increase their awareness of their surroundings. An example of this is the Aviation Warrior, a wearables system developed by Raytheon, which includes a helmet, wrist display and portable computing device, all designed to provide the soldier with as much information as possible about who is on the battlefield in real-time.The military is not limited in the scope of its wearables-related thinking to soldiers. Under development is a wearable that can âtranslateâ the actions of military animals. The system is known as FIDO (facilitating interactions for dogs with occupationsâ), and after training, the dog could activate different sensors to activate different t hings, for example a tug to issue a beep to indicate the presence of an explosive.MedicalAnother early adopter of wearables is the medical community, many members of whom are interested in miniature wearables for healthcare monitoring. One such wearable is MC10âs ultra-thin Biostamp, which, when affixed to the body, can monitor heart rate, temperature and other vital statistics, and can send that information wirelessly back to doctors. Others include a bandaid by medical sensor company Corventis that monitors heart conditions; a muscle contraction sensor by TMG that measures muscle fatigue; and a âsmartâ insole by Moticon for use in patient analysis, monitoring, and rehabilitation.Wearables have further applications in clinical practice, such as the 9Solutions IPCS, a device that tracks medical staff and equipment in real-time.OtherOther applications of wearable tech include, but are not limited to recording car accidents for insurance purposes; law enforcement surveillance; m apping terrain for outdoor activities in real-time; and serving as memory aids.NOTABLE CURRENT EXAMPLES OF WEARABLESWhile there are many, many players in the wearables market, a few standout.Top 5 Wearable Tech So Far Google Glass © Flickr | Ted EytanPerhaps the most buzzworthy wearable in recent years has been Google Glass, a headset that can be fitted with prescription frames, that provides users with wireless connectivity, apps, and other features available on the android operating system. In 2013, a limited run was manufactured, distributed, and priced at $1,500 a piece. As of August 2014, it is available to anyone who wants one, but Google has indicated to journalists that it is not a fully formed consumer product yet.During its short life, Google Glass has proven itself to be an object of excitement, curiosity and scorn. Many tech enthusiasts praise the functionality and design, as well as its light weight, but many others who encounter users, are put off by it because of privacy concerns, and the perception of intrusiveness. Technical complaints involve the limited battery life, unreliable voice recognition for anything other than navigation, issues conforming to the vision needs of certain users, and generally underdeveloped software.Fitbit © Flickr | US CPSCA recognized brand in the fitness wearables category, the firm Fitbit sells several models of smart wristbands that tracks your physical activity, and transmits this information, wirelessly, to your smartphone or tablet app. It is compatible with devices running iOS or Android OS, and can send notifications when a wearer have achieved or missed a fitness goal. It has proven to be popular, largely within the fitness enthusiast market. It does have a number of direct competitors in addition to the basic pedometer, a number of smart wristbands by different manufacturers that track physical activity, differentiated by design, metrics, and usability. Fortunately for Fitbitâs competitors, following wearer complaints that the Fitbit Force caused skin rashes, the company recently recalled the product (controversy has continued with delays in the issuance of recall checks). This is illustrative of one of the challenges presented to wearables manufacturers â" ensuring tha t the device works safely on the human body.Others © Flickr | Karlis DambransOther notable wearables on the market include:The Martian Notifier, Pebble Watch, and Samsung Gear 2 Neo, three different smartwatches with varying levels of smartphone functionality;The Fitbit Zip, Basis Band, Jawbone Up24, and Withings Pulse O2: different smart physical activity trackers for the fitness enthusiast; andAiQâs smart shirts, such as the BioMan t-shirt with smart sleeves that monitor the wearerâs vital signs; the SolarMan vest that can capture and store solar energy and use it to recharge a wearerâs electronic devices; and the ArmorMan pullover that stiffens to protect the wearer.CHALLENGES PRESENTED BY WEARABLESDespite the number of players in the wearables markets and the optimism of market analysts, widespread adoption of wearables remains a challenging proposition for a number of reasons including privacy issues, consumer reticence, and both design and standardization issues.PrivacyThere are severe privacy considerations concerning w earables, which must be addressed within the contexts of various national and local legal frameworks. Fundamentally, what controls exist to ensure that people are not using wearables to surreptitiously record others or copyrighted material?Notably, a user of Google Glass, who had the device integrated with his prescription glasses, was arrested and detained in January of 2014 by federal law enforcement official on suspicion that he had recorded a movie he had just watched (he had not). As media accounts indicate, agents who repeatedly questioned him and asked him to demonstrate the devices usage, did not fully understand the device and were unprepared to enforce relevant laws.While this user did not surreptitiously record material, and while Google Glass has restricted its authorized apps from incorporating facial recognition functionality, a determined do-it-yourselfer can incorporate these features into their device. This reality adds to the perception of the intrusiveness of head sets and other wearables that incorporate recording technology, and heightens consumer hesitance to use the product.Consumer reticenceWidespread adoption of wearables is further constrained by 1) the limited consumer awareness of the products currently on the market; 2) the limited number of products currently on the market; and 3) hesitation among some consumers to increase their connectivity. Regarding the latter, some people will undoubtedly just want clothes to just be clothes. The aforementioned privacy concern, coupled with public accounts of overzealous law enforcement regarding the Google Glass, adds to consumer reticence.Further, fashion is an important aspect of wearables adoption: people will not adopt wearables if it aesthetically displeasing or uncomfortable. And many technology firms are struggling with the perfect mix of form and function.The average consumer may wonder why they should be interested in wearables. After all, they have smartphones, which in many cases, have more functionality than the average wearable. In the first quarter of 2014, 300 million smartphones were shipped, compared to only 2.8 million wearable devices.Other challengesAs a practical matter, wearables are limited by the size, shape, and form of the wireless technology incorporated into the clothing item, as well as the maximum life of the battery that powers it. Materials must be flexible and pliable enough to conform to a body part or body type. Wearables must also be able to operate safely on the human body, a moving and perspiring environment subject to the elements. Display quality is also in issue in the sunlight; poor visibility will turn off consumers. And batteries should have an appreciable life â" a tall order for most wearables.Many current applications cannot yet be manufactured at a high volume for a low price point, making cost a further challenge. Standardization is another key challenge. While major software firms like Google are players in this space, there are a number of smaller competitors as well, each with their own operating parameters.Further, security is a challenge that cannot be overstated. A recent study by IT firm Symantec found:ââ¦âsecurity risks in a large number of self-tracking devices and applications,â including the finding that âall of the wearable activity-tracking devices examined, including those from leading brands, are vulnerable to location tracking.âTHE FUTURE OF WEARABLESBeyond the realms of fitness, tech enthusiasts, medical/healthcare and military gear, the future of wearables remains to be seen. The market could very well endure some consolidation, with a few major players emerging. But a compelling consumer wearable model â" a reason to connect clothing, a reason to, ostensibly, do away with the smartphone, and a reasonable price point â" has not yet emerged. Wearables may yet remain a niche product, albeit a growing one, as new technologies emerge.The Internet of Things (IoT) â" the e ver-increasing trend of connecting physical objects to the Internet may drive the growth of wearables. It may be that consumers, buying into the growing smart home trend and living in municipalities that are increasingly interconnected (âsmart citiesâ), may decide they simply want everything connected. And advances in the technology may eliminate safety and aesthetics as concerns. Privacy remains a significant hurdle; how it is addressed by national and local governments will have a significant impact on consumer adoption.But no matter how widespread consumer wearables become, commercial, medical and military wearables have a bright future. And with both the growing market and the lucrative pot of big data that wearables create, itâs a near-certainty that firms will continue to develop, introduce, and refine consumer wearable products and brands vigorously.The Creators Project Make It Wearable SeriesEpisode 1 Human Communication Episode 2 Human Health Episode 3 Human Expr ession Episode 4 Becoming Superhuman Image credit: Flickr | PEOSoldier, Flickr | Karlis Dambrans under Attribution 2.0 Generic. Flickr | Ted Eytan under Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic.
Posted by Alice Mitchell at 5:16 PM
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Psychologists are very important people; they help millions of people with their everyday struggles and problems that they have to deal with. Not only do psychologists help people with problems that they cannot handle on their own, they also are scientists who study human minds and behaviors. With being a psychologist, there are many different careers to choose from within this profession (Explore Health Careers). The first type of psychologists to choose from is a clinical psychologist. Clinical psychologists help people with counseling and psychotherapy. They work with people who have all around life problems, such as new adjustments in life. Clinical psychologists also help people who have emotional disorders orÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They also provide consolation to courts and attorneys in different types of legal proceedings (Psyris). Next is an organization psychologist, which helps in the productivity of groups and individuals in a workplace. These types of psychologist s focus on improving the function of organizations, and to keep individuals healthy within the organization (Psyris). Another type of psychology to choose from is a counseling psychologist. These are important psychologists because they teach people how to deal with their everyday problems. They help their patients determine their problems and help them understand the problems they are facing. Not only do counseling psychologists help their patients with the issues they are experiencing at home but also in their workplace or their community in general. By helping their patients identify their strengths and resources, is how counseling psychologists help them with their problems (Bureau of Labor Statistics). The next type of psychology is the developmental psychologist. Developmental psychologists work with psychological processes and development that takes place throughout life. They study aging and problems the elderly may face, but this type of psychologist mainly focuses on child ren and adolescents (Bureau of Labor Statistics). The last type of psychologist to choose from is the socialShow MoreRelatedMy Career As A Psychologist Essay2107 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageswas set in one career until my senior year of high school. That year I took an introduction to psychology class that really changed my perspective on psychology. There I learned that there were many types of fields with in the field of psychology. I felt a really strong connection and interest in psychology after that class. Therefore, after long consideration I have considered to pursue a career as a psychologist after graduate school. The years it takes to become a psychologist really dependsRead MoreCareer Option: Counseling Psychologists1947 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCareer Exploration I. Career Field/Occupation of Choice: Code 19-3031.03 - Counseling Psychologists. II. The nature of the work for this career Counseling Psychologists are primarily involved, as the job title implies, in providing counseling services to clients who are in need of it. Counseling Psychologists may work one-on-one with individuals, conduct group therapy sessions, or they may counsel families. The kinds of services provided are generally counseling clients to understand problemsRead MoreMy Career As A Clinical Psychologist1886 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe aim of this portfolio is to present my career choice as a clinical psychologist and to show the skills and experience I have gained and those that I have yet to gain, plus an account of how I expect to gain them. I will continue to discuss personal experiences which really pushed me to pursue my goals, along with a list of disorders which take my interest. Next, I will provide a few different organisations relating to psychology and the importance of good health care. I will showcase and discussRead MoreThe Different Career Options for Psychologists Essay1116 Wo rds Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbehaviors. Psychologists often form hypotheses and test these through studies and research. They carefully follow the scientific method to gather data. The research methods used by psychologists vary by branches of study. These methods include controlled laboratory experiments, and personality, intelligence, aptitude, or performance tests. Other methods of research are interviews, observations, questionnaires, surveys, and clinical studies. There are a wide range of careers under the umbrellaRead MoreMy Career Goals Of Becoming An Applied Social Psychologist982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPersonal Statement A few years ago, my future and my goals were clear: I would graduate in 2017 with a BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s of Science in Psychology and pursue a career in therapeutic counseling. However, my plans were altered after I was exposed to the research side of psychology. I was drawn in by the psychological insight shed on tragedies like the holocaust, why no witnesses helped Kitty Genovese after she had been stabbed, how a rape victim can misremember his or her assailant, and possible solutionsRead MorePsychology, The Scientific Study Of The Mind1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages is a very broad field with many career opportunities. Psychology is a fairly new field and has many job opportunities available for anyone wanting to make a career with a degree. There are therapy related jobs along with jobs that are not therapy related. Most psychologists wanting a job that is therapy related need a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree or doctoral, however ones who do not pursue a job with therapy obtain a bachelorÃ¢â¬â ¢s or masterÃ¢â¬â¢s. The average pay for psychologists ranges from around $70,000 to $100Read MoreExperimental Psychology : Psychology And Psychology Essay1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstudies (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Therefore, experimental psychologists approve or disapprove psychological beliefs through research. Experimental psychologists hypothesize the issues related to psychological subjects, and then conduct studies to find out the truth about their hypotheses (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in Psychology,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). On the other hand, when some experimental psychologists study different psychological phenomena, the others devote their time to find the answers to one complex issue (Ã¢â¬Å"Career in PsychologyRead MorePsychology : Psychology And Psychology1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPsychology is a very broad field of study and requires a lot of research when choosing a career. The education that is required for pursuing a career in the field of psychology depends on the type of psychologist you want to be. Most psychology programs require at least a master s degree to pursue a psychologist career, but some may require a doctoral degree. It is important to know the educational requirements as well as state requirements when entering the field of psychology. Southwestern hasRead MoreThe World of Psychology Essay example620 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesadvertised product. Psychologists usually treat patients with a mental or emotional problem, but they also serve as scientists researching human behavior. They study how humans relate to each other, and work to improve these relationships. Psychologist especially concentrates on behaviors that affect the mental and emotional health of healthy human beings. In order to be a psychologist, one must know the educational requirements, the benefits, and the working conditions. Psychologists study the humanRead MoreA Brief Note On Forensic Psychology And The Criminal Justice System1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhile many people only know of common roles, there are many smaller jobs that are no less important. One critical job linked to the criminal justice system is that of a forensic psychologist. Forensic psychology requires a background in psychology, but works primarily in the court system. Most of the time, a forensic psychologist applies their expertise in psychology to a case, whether it is by assessing a defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s mental competency or determining how a pre-existing condition influenced a crime. Forensic
Posted by Alice Mitchell at 5:19 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Opening Erik Erikson stated that there are eight psychosocial stages of development. Within each of these stages, he states that there is a crisis that must be resolved. Trust vs. mistrust is the first, which occurs from the time you were born to about one year of age. From there you move on to autonomy vs. shame and doubt, which occurs from ages one to three. Then there is initiative vs. guilt, which occurs from ageÃ¢â¬â¢s three to six. After that it is industry vs. inferiority, which occurs between ages, is six to twelve. Fowling that is intimacy vs. isolation, which occurs between ages eighteen to thirty. Then comes generativity vs. stagnation, which occurs between ages thirty and into late adulthood. The last stage is integrity vs. despair,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The child will have learned how to say no and the power of the word. If the caregiver allows the child to discover and learn new things on their own, than the children can develop a sense of autonomy. If the caregiver i s strict and does not let the child, discover things on there own the child can develop a sense of shame and doubt. There will be a sense of will in this stage. One of the neighbor kids I watch is currently in this stage. He is 2 Ã ½ years old. He has begun to do many things by himself. He no longer needs me to feed him or stabilize him as he walks. His parents have even started him with early learning programs so he can learn by himself. He should grow up to have a sense of autonomy. Initiative vs. Guilt EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s third stage ranges from ages three to six years old. The crisis in the stage is initiative vs. guilt. The child begins to learn the basics of life, what goes up must come down how to tie there shoes, fluently talk and more. Their independence is growing greater the child learns more they can do. As they learn what they can do they also start to learn what they should not do, they start feeling guilt when they do things that are wrong. Here they will begin going to preschool. They are going to start wanting to try new things and set out to complete new goals and tasks they want to do. According to David Myers Ã¢â¬Å"preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about thereShow MoreRelatedErik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Eight Stages of Development Essay1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory he explains that in every stage, a positive or a negative attitude is developed within an individual. During our developing stages we are e ither successful or we fail. Each stage will come to us whether or not weÃ¢â¬â¢re ready for them or not. You can think of the stages as learning stages where crisis occur .Only if we have learned from the previous crisis we are successful. You cannot avoid 1 stage and move to a next stage because of the developing process. The outcome of ourRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Erik Erikson Ã¢â¬Å"There is in every child at every stage a new miracle of vigorous unfolding.Ã¢â¬ And no matter who you are and what you do, I believe that everyone will go through stages in their life. Erik Erikson was a famous psychologist in the twentieth Ã¢â¬â century, where he developed Ã¢â¬Å"Psychosocial stagesÃ¢â¬ . EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theories centered on issues that were met on specific ages in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Love, care, and tender is critical and many parents do not realize how much nurturing and caring for a childRead MoreErik Erikson s Eight Stages Of Psychosocial Development1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesErik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s eight stages of psychosocial development are very well known in the world of psychology. These eight stages deal with critical situations that we go through in life from infancy to late adulthood. Ã¢â¬Å"Throughout life we go through various stages during which we meet ever changing psychosocial challenges Ã¢â¬â the completion of these stages pre pares us to move on to the following stages (EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Stages Through Identity).Ã¢â¬ This makes sense because we go through life making decisions in orderRead MoreErik Erikson : Psychosocial Development1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesErik Erikson: Psychosocial Stages of Development Ã¢â¬Å"Erik Erikson was best-known for his famous theory of psychosocial development and the concept of the identity crisis. His theories marked and important shift in thinking on personality; instead of focusing simply on early childhood events, his psychosocial theory looked at how social influences contribute to personality throughout the entire lifespanÃ¢â¬ (Cherry). This paper will discuss EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood and the influence it had on his work. AlsoRead MoreThe Theorist I Choose For This Paper That I Believe I Relate1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmost is Erik Erikson. Erik Erikson is best known for his theory on identity, which was a theory that was broadened from Sigmund Freud while retaining its core work (Schultz, D. Schultz, S., 2013). Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, who was Jewish, became pregnant but a man that was not her husband after her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s disappearance. She was sent to Germany, where she gave birth to Erik. Erik Erikson grew up believing his p ediatrician was his biological father due to his mother marrying this man. Since Erik EriksonRead MoreCompare and contrast the developmental life span theories742 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUrie Bronfenbrenner perspective on lifespan development was the bio-ecological approach which suggest that five levels if the environment simultaneously influence indviduals. He tagged different aspects or levels of environment that influences a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Urie Bronfenbrenner five major systems are called microsystem; which is everyday immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives. Second is the mesosystem; which provides connections between the various aspects of the microsystemRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory Of Development1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesErik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychosocial Theory of Development Erik Erikson, a German psychologist of the early 1900s, is most known for his theory on psychosocial development in humans. He was heavily influenced by his work with Anna Freud and her father, Sigmund Freud. However, in his research, he put emphasis on the cultural and social impact on identity development and studying the ego, which he believed developed with successful crisis resolving throughout life (Ã¢â¬Å"EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s StagesÃ¢â¬ , 2007). He proposed theRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory On Child Development1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesErik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychosocial Theory on Child Development Erik Erikson, a well known developmental theorist, developed his theory about stages of human development from birth to death by using Freud s work as a starting point. According to Erikson, personality develops in a series of stages. Erikson found out that children experience conflicts which affect their development. He described the internal conflict which children go through in developmental stages using the term Ã¢â¬ËcrisisÃ¢â¬â¢ and are based onRead MorePhychosocial Development Of Erick Eriksons Psychosocial Theory943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychosocial Stage Theory Born on 15th June, 1902, Erick Homburger Erikson made a huge contribution to the human growth and development discipline by coming up with his eight psychosocial stage theory (Patel, 2016). The theory puts emphasis on sociocultural factors as development determinants that individuals must resolve to healthily adjust to their respective environments. He structured the theory into eight stages based on the age-bracket of an individual throughout their lifetime.Read MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychology760 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesErik Erikson was a well-known 20th century psychologist who made various contributions to the field of psychology. He was born on June 15, 1902 in Frankfurt, Germany. His unnamed Danish biological father abandoned ErikÃ¢â¬â¢s mother before he was born. Erik was raised by his mother, Karla Abrahamsen, for the first three years and she married Dr. Theodor Homberger in 1905. His mother and stepfather raised him and Erik took his stepfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s name, Erik A brahamsen. Erik had blond hair, blue eyes, and Nordic
Posted by Alice Mitchell at 11:03 PM
Question: Discuss about theConnection Between Law and Morality. Answer: Introduction Law cannot be viewed in isolation form the social and political values of the day. Even when in most cases, law is inferred from interpreting legislation, the Constitution and Judicial decisions; the moral and political practice of the society is essential in establishing the rules that should govern people in a many spheres of life. This is a position which is strongly backed by natural law philosophers who opine that law must be concordant with moral underpinnings of a society. One of the greatest proponents of natural law is Lon L. Fuller who elaborately discussed the essence of moral law through his famous postulates of procedural morality. This paper intends to discuss why law must borrow from moral and ethical principles using Fullers philosophical conception of law and morality. Background Information There are two main theoretical frameworks within which law is characterized. First, there is Natural Law, and then legal positivism. Natural law implies that laws normative power stems from a number of axiomatic principles which are innate in human nature. As such, law is generally informed by religious principles; morality and other conventional norms. On the other hand, legal positivism stipulates that a law is only valid if there is an authority behind it. According to Jeremy Benthams conception, there must be a threat backed by a sanction in case of non-compliance. Without such enforcement authority, then words remain statements and not law. Aside from these two main theories, there are many other theories like sociological jurisprudence, legal realism and pure theory of law. The conception of legal positivists also implies that the only rules that can be considered as law are those which have been posited by an authority; those which are written in black and white within l egal documents. Any rules which are not sanctioned by an authority cannot be regarded to have any normative force within the society. The position that law should only be drawn from that which is written by the authorities has however come under strong opposition. According to Cotterrell, the law must always be apprehensive of the happenings in the society. In addition to this, Judges are always faced with cases which do not have a precise answer in the law. Therefore morality and politics should be invoked to fill in the grey areas. Fullers Conception of Law and Morality Lon Fuller was an American Jurist who devoted most of his scholarly life establishing the relationship between law and morality. Much as his arguments are often associated with natural law, Fuller did not conform to the conventional natural law approach that holds that all unjust law is not law at all. He never explicitly subscribe to this position. Natural lawyers generally assert that there are certain objective moral principles which exist according to the nature of the universe and can be discovered by reason. In this case a proper legal system cannot exist if it is not guided by any religious or moral fabric. Fuller advances this argument by distinguishing these natural rules from the general practice that is adapted by people who are aware of their needs in the society in a bid to further their welfare. Both of these forms of rules essentially guide day to day human activity even though they are not sanctioned by the authority. In his theory, Fuller stipulates that there is external and internal morality of law. According to him, while external morality entails the fairness and justness of law and its impact to the society; internal morality is an order of law which is contained in procedural natural law. His specific focus was on the inner morality of law whereby he enlisted eight principles which a law should satisfy for it to meet the threshold of having internal morality. First, the laws must contain a set of ongoing rules governing human conduct which are expressed in terms generally known to the people. Secondly, the rules must be of progressive effect and not retrospective in application. Thirdly, the laws must be publicly promulgated so as to notify people of the obligations and duties imposed on them by the laws in question. Also, the laws must be intelligible, explicit and expressed in a manner that is easily understandable by the persons subject to them without any ambiguity. The fifth rule is that the laws should be consistent at all times with other existing laws and not contradict each other. In addition to this, the rules must be crafted in a way that makes it possible for the people to obey them. In this case, the laws must make realistic demands to the people. The seventh rule is that once a law has been enacted, it must remain as constant as possible so that the people can easily predict how their actions can be sanctioned unlike if the laws governing a concept are changed so often. Finally, the administration and enforcement of the said rules must be always consistent. The Nexus Between Fullers Postulates and Contemporary Legal Systems Natural lawyers argue that since the law draws from nature, it is universal and cannot be changed because it is an edict of God. The implication of this statement is that even if the authorities or government of the day does not recognize natural law; it still exists because these principles are innate and are shared by the whole society. Therefore governments should endeavor to incorporate these principles into law and enforce them so as to achieve justice. From this background, this theory further asserts that anything that does not comply with standards of natural law is bad law and ought not be enforced. The question of whether a law can be classified as good law and worth applicability can only be answered through judicial interpretation. Lon Fuller explained this concept through his hypothetical scenario of the Spelucean Explorers Case. In this case, he establishes that Courts are often faced with hard decisions to make in situations where a strict application of written la w would result in outright injustices. From this background, it is imperative that a more objective source of law is invoked so as to fill in the gaps or rectify holes in posited law. That is where morality comes in. The legal regime in Australia borrows heavily from common law principles which have been in effect for a very long period. These rules are often framed in very general terms which leave a great discretion for the Judge to ascertain the threshold of applicability. For instance, the renowned standard of a reasonable man is an arbitrary impression which has to be determined by a judge according to the perception he has created over a certain matter. On top of this, it is also noteworthy that Constitutions of most legal systems are expressed in general terms so as to allow for a much more expansive interpretation of these documents. This notwithstanding, in many jurisdictions, specific statutes contain provisions which are straight forward in their wording in order to avoid any ambiguity. This is clearly concordant with Fullers position that laws should not be expressed in general terms. One feature that is notable with Fullers postulate is that he did not arrange the eight rules following any order of precedence. Instead, he mooted for an informed balancing process that can lead to all the rules to be applied in equal measure. The problem with this is that in many cases, enforcing all these rules may be impossible because some are likely to conflict with each other. In this case, a lawmaker is entitled to employ discretionary powers with a view of subordinating some of the rules so as to achieve a greater societal goal. It is important that such discretion is arrived at after the lawmaker has examined all the eight rules and their intended goals before deciding on precedence because it is very crucial to the viability of the laws. In that case, the most important procedural rules have to be given preference over all the rest. According to the scholar, each one of the eight principles should be regarded as essential desideratum. As mentioned earlier in this paper, he did not entirely agree that there exist certain axiomatic rules laid down by a Supreme Being, with which all laws ought to conform for them to be regarded as good laws. His view is that law is terrestrial and a creature of mankind aimed at addressing what mankind wants. In light of this, laws are made with the sole intention of promoting the greatest public good in the society. Also, the fact that the principles enumerated by Fuller are objective in nature and in tandem with the general moral stipulations; it is often argued that this theory is essential in checking whether enacted laws satisfy the moral test that all rules have to pass for them to be regarded as good law. Therefore, a Judge should first examine a law in light of the eight principles so as to ascertain whether its enforcement would result in an infringement of the inte rests of the people. Lon Fuller also unequivocally dissociated himself from any impression that may be made that he subscribes to the legal positivists school of thought. This is evidenced through his definition of law where he stated that law is an element of subjecting human conduct to governance of rules. This definition explicitly omits the aspects of force and coercion which legal positivists hold that they must be present for any set of regulations to be called law. Positivists believe that for rules to be law, there must be a threat which is backed by sanction and this is the only assurance that the said rules will be well administered and applicable to all people. Fuller generally posits that laws are made to regulate human activity with an intention of achieving the objectives of the society and there are two types of laws. There are formal laws which are initiated with the backing of the government of the day. There are also other directions which are given by persons who cannot compel enforcement but are nonetheless applicable. Both of these sets of laws according to Fuller, must satisfy the eight requirements for them to qualify to be called proper laws. About the precise relationship between law and morality, Fuller decided to divide the term morality into four different categories and subsequently create a two diametrically opposed conceptions of morality. He pointed out that there are two major types of morality; morality of aspiration and morality of duty. Morality of aspiration is informed by the generally accepted principles within a society which people believe that they are the right behavior if the society is to achieve certain goals. This type of morality is has been widely likened with ethics because in ethics, people decide on taking up a given practice not out of coercion but on their own volition because they acknowledge the positive outcome associated with doing so. On the other hand, morality of duty is now morality in its conventional sense. It is a set of principles which are set out by a supernatural being with an aim of guiding the society. The implication of morality being a duty is that people end up con forming to moral principles not necessarily out of will but for fear of sanctions from a higher moral authority. The two sets of law could often be conflicting amongst themselves. In the same way that natural lawyers would view a command of the sovereign to be inconsistent with moral principles and thus not qualified to be law; at times the morality of aspiration may make directions that are contrary to the morality of duty. According to Fullers exposition, morality of aspirations encompasses all regulations which are meant to further mans best interests. Legal principles under this type of morality have to depict the true colors of the people and realize the best out of the potential of all persons. The morality of duty however, establishes minimum standards which are essential to facilitate orderly and smooth functioning of the society. Therefore, legal principles which are formulated with the objective of promoting order in the society should always be in line with the morality of duty. General determination of how appropriate human conduct is must however be left to the morality of aspi rations. Having established this background, Fuller strongly defended the fact that human endeavor should not be regulated wholesomely by law but instead, general societal norms also have a role to play. He cautioned that there should be utmost restraint while making laws that are meant to govern the conduct of individuals. In addition to this, he insisted that the lawmaker ought not to confuse the morality of duty with morality of aspirations. Ascribing to the teachings of classical natural law, Fuller cautioned that it is important that the morality of duty is referred to while making laws, because considering morality of aspirations might greatly inhibit proper utilization of the law and lead to creation of unsatisfactory legal principles. If the law is predicated upon the morality of aspirations, then the society risks coming up with a body of too many rules which deal with all types of human activity. A legal system that has this much of specificity could hamper the achievement of fu ll potential by normal citizens. Such laws according to Fuller, are likely to regulate experimentation, prevent one from putting all his talents into good use, and prohibit freedom of action which essentially is against the best interests of a human being. The scholar also opposes the position that law is only that which is posited by the sovereign and enforced by threats and sanctions. Not all legal provisions whose compliance is forced on people by powerful figures deserve to be called law. The fact that a sovereign has issued a command does not imply that the directive will be followed or obeyed by all people. That is why in many countries, anti-gambling laws are rarely followed by citizens in many countries. Further to this argument, legal positivists have also not come out to explain the reason as to why there are some rules which are just followed without a threat or sanction being directly attached. For example, many people find themselves obeying traffic rules especially when crossing roads, not because the rules are extremely friendly to them but because they believe that there is much to gain when obeying the laws than when they fail to do so. The people who obey laws not out of fear of sanctions generally believe that the ru les in question are good. Conclusion This paper has established that at all times law makers and interpreters cannot maintain a clean break from moral and political considerations while breathing life to rules and regulations in the society. In the course of his scholarly works, Lon Fuller appreciated that not all human aspects can be regulated sufficiently by law. Therefore, in most cases, the work of judges involves giving directions about certain grey areas within the law. The question that always rings in this respect is where does the judge get the guidance within his mind to give directions over a matter that has never been posited or provided for within the text and practice of the law? According to Fuller, Judges often invoke both the morality of aspirations and morality of duty in a bid to reach an informed decision that is fair and reasonable according to the best objective standards. Therefore, the moral beliefs of a given society and their collective goals help to shape the law at all times, even when the wr itten law makes clear stipulations. Bibliography B Macleod-Cullinane, (1995) Lon L. Fuller and the Enterprise of Law, Legal Notes 1995) No: 22. Cotterrell, Roger, The politics of jurisprudence: a critical introduction to legal philosophy 2nd ed, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003). Fuller, Lon L., Positivism and Fidelity to the Law A Reply to Professor Hart , 71 HarvardLaw Review 630-72 (1958); reprinted in Feinberg and Gross, Philosophy of Law, pp. 81- 102. Fuller, Lon L., The Case of the Speluncean Explorers, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 62, (1949): pp. 616-645; reprinted in Feinberg and Gross, Philosophy of Law, pp. 530-545. Fuller, Lon L., Legal Fictions, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1967) The Principles of Social Order: Selected Essays of Lon L. Fuller, edited with an introduction by Kenneth I. Winston, (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2nd printing Leube, Kurt, Justice, Rule of Law, and Legal Positivism, (lecture given at the 14th Universitd Etde la Nouvelle conomie, Aix-en-Provence, France, August, 1991).1982; ) Fuller, Lon, L., The Morality of Law, Revised Edition (Yale University Press, 1969) p 97. Fuller, Lon. L, Human Purpose and Natural Law, Journal of Philosophy, (1956) Vol.53, No.22, 697-705. Hart, H. L. A., Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals, 71 Harvard Law Review 593-629 (1958); reprinted in Joel Feinberg and Hyman Gross ed., Philosophy of Law, Fourth Edition, (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1991; ): pp. 63-81). Hart, H. L. A., Review of The Morality of Law, Harvard Law Review, Vol. 78, (1965), pp. 1281-1296: pp. 1295-1296. Hart, H. L. A., The Concept of Law, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961); excerpted and reprinted in Feinberg and Gross, Philosophy of Law, pp. 48-62 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, The Common Law. (Hamburg: tradition, 2013) p 37. John Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights, 2d ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). Kommers, Donald P., John E. Finn, and Gary J. Jacobsohn, American constitutional law: essays, cases, and comparative notes (Lanham: Rowman Littlefield, 2004) p 149. Kramer, Matthew H, In defense of legal positivism: law without trimmings (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) Ladwig, B.. "Global justice, cosmopolitanism and moral path dependency", (Philosophy Social Criticism, 2013). Lomasky, Loren E., Persons, Rights, and the Moral Community, (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987). Lon L. Fuller, Anatomy of The Law (New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1968). MDA Freeman, Lloyds Introduction to Jurisprudence (7thedn, Sweet and Maxwell 2001) p 26.. Myers S. McDougal, Harold D. Lasswell W. Michael Reisman, Theories about International Law: Prologue to a Configurative Jurisprudence (1968) 8 Va. J.I.L. 188. Nolan, Jeremy, Is Law As It Ought To Be?: Or, Can We Make AnySense of Lon L. Fullers Concept of The Internal Morality of Law?, (unpublished manuscript, circulated to the Political Theory Workshop, University of York, 16/03/93, 7.30pm). Patrick Lee, Human Nature and Moral Goodness in Mark Cherry, ed., The Normativity of the Natural (New York: Springer, 2009). Robert George, In Defense of Natural Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999). Spencer, Herbert, The Principles of Ethics, (1892-93; reprinted, with an Introduction by Tibor R. Machan, Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1978): Vol. II. Summers, Robert S. Lon L. Fuller, (London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., 1984). Summers, Robert S., Professor Fuller on Morality and Law, 18 Journal of Legal Education 1 (1966); reprinted in More Essays in Legal Philosophy: General Assessments of Legal Philosophies, Selected and Edited by Robert S. Summers, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1971): pp. 101-130.
Posted by Alice Mitchell at 7:26 AM
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Views concerning Making Marriage Work Based on the interview conducted by Betty Ann Bowser regarding the institution of marriage in Oklahoma, the welfare program tries to help individuals especially married couples, who are psychologically affected as a result of broken marriages.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Making Marriage Work specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the governor, Mr. Frank Keating, poverty is one of the major reasons why most families end up being divorced. However, marriage is a long term commitment and individuals should not venture into it without knowing the risks involved. People who are planning on getting married should first be acquainted with each other before settling down on getting married. According to rules and principles governing marriages, it has been instituted that marriage involves joining two people; in the end, combined understanding and resources tend to bear fr uitful results economically (Bowser, 2002). This is true because individuals tend to meet new people and thereafter, fall in love within a short time frame. After some time, they become married without any adequate dating and proper understanding of each other. In most cases, the newly weds end up in a financial compromising situations and become strained; as a result, one party displays violent behavior (domestic violence) while the other becomes demoralized leading to divorce. Furthermore, most men turn to alcohol and substance abuse and later become violent towards their wives. Norma Battice, a divorced mother of two children, can testify to spousal abuse from a drug addicted spouse. The aim of the governor in using state funds to reduce the number of divorce cases is compulsory because it becomes obligatory for individuals to know each other, be able to come up with conclusive ways of solving family issues without fighting or arguing and assisting married couples in living a hap py and prosperous life. From the movie script, it can be seen that the co-director at the Center for Marital and Family Studies reaffirms that couples that have known each other for long end up resolving their disparities without using violence unlike couples that have not known each other for long. The co-director further illustrated that in the end chances of divorce are large in couples that cannot resolve conflicts peacefully. In line with the issues faced by most marriages, and the approach implemented by the Oklahoma governor, it would be wise if the president of America, apart from proposing the reforms in the sphere of marriage education, also consider making the prep program a national affair so that every American citizen would be able to gain access to the program.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This proposal, which would cost about three hundred million dollars, wou ld ensure that the American institution of marriage becomes stable and marriages lead to stable families. Though on the contrary, critics, for example, Wade Horn, believe that marriage education is a form of dating site for single Americans, who would not want to be associated with it. However, this is not the case since marriage education is meant to teach young couples the virtues of marriage and how to sustain their marriages. In my opinion, a stable family would contribute to better upbringing of children and, consequently, accomplish the utmost objective for the American welfare policy. Even though this policy is under scrutiny by government agencies, I think it is meant for the well being of the American married couples. Quoting Betty Bowser, Ã¢â¬Å"this policy could mean that federal funds be used to develop marriage education programs just like the one in OklahomaÃ¢â¬ . Reference Bowser, B. A. (2002). Making Marriage Work. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/ This essay on Making Marriage Work was written and submitted by user East0n to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Posted by Alice Mitchell at 6:50 PM
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
What is a homesteader essays What is a homesteader? Well, a homesteader was a person like you or me. They were not cowboys like many people say. Homesteaders left their homes for a specific reason. These reasons are looked at on page 3. But no matter what their reason, the main thing is they were leaving their homes. They went on a very long and hard journey, and many did not make it to their destination. Homesteaders were people who left their homes. They were people like you or me, not cowboys like movies make them out to be. They could be bankers, farmers, or anyone else who wanted to leave their homes for the west. It didnt matter if they were rich or poor. Everyone had a reason to be on the wagon train heading for the West. Homesteaders left for many reasons. These could be personal or physical. It may be something like the person had a sick aunt in the west and they were going to live with her. Or a person may have went bankrupt and went to the west to seek a fortune. Many people left because the west had good farmlands. Or blacks left to escape the laws of the south. The next two pages describe two major reasons people left. One of the main reasons many homesteaders left was because of the Homestead Act. The Homestead Act said that the government would give away 160 acres of land away to people for free. The only catch was the people had to pay a small registration fee and live and work the land for about 5 years. Another reason was because of gold. Miners left their homes in the other parts of the US to go to the West. Many gold rushes were going on there. When the miners got there they set up boomtowns. Boomtowns were small towns that were built in 3-5 days so the miners had a place to stay. They consisted mainly of shacks and tents. Many boomtowns were abandoned soon after they were built. They were then called ghost towns. Some boomtowns stayed towns and are now major cities. Homesteaders did not take many things on their jo ...
Posted by Alice Mitchell at 2:53 PM
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Write an Argumentative Outline with Ease! Want to Know How to Write an Outline for an Argumentative Essay? An argumentative essay is quite a common task, which is assigned at both high school and college. It aims to show the tutor how students are able to study the topic, gather information, process it and provide strong evidence on a given subject. This task requires lots of energy and time, so we have decided to collect information on the key elements and features, which your argumentative paper outline should possess. During the working process, you need to study all the arguments and choose the side you are on. This may require lots of sleepless nights, as the volume of information may be very impressive. However, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that a first-class argumentative essay is a huge challenge. We offer you an article, which will answer all of your questions and you will be able to create an outline that will reflect all of your ideas in a clear and brief manner. Proper structure Any time you need to start something new, you feel nervous and think that the task is too complicated. Let us assure you that after reading this guide you will find the whole process quite simple and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to stress out. Your outline should consist of equally important sections, which aim to show the tutor what you stand on. These sections include: Introduction; Working on arguments; Discrowning opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments; Conclusions. Let us take a closer look at every section. Just make yourself comfortable and continue reading! Introduction You probably know a popular saying that you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get a second chance to make a first impression. It greatly reflects the whole deal with the introductory section, as it can easily catch the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest or make him want to drop your essay at once. As any other paper, an argumentative introduction should consist of the hook, basic information and a thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence you read and it has a huge impact on the number of audience you will have. You will probably agree that you will likely stop reading an article or a book if the beginning is boring or uninteresting. The same applies to your essay and you need to make your hook as catchy, as possible. Here are the things you may use as a hook: Quotes of famous people or characters; Anecdotes if your topic is entertaining and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require an academic tone; A question, which will intrigue the reader; A misconception; A fact or statistics, which will surprise the audience. After the hook, you should proceed with the basic information on the subject. To make the whole process much simpler, you should try to answer the following questions: Who may consider this topic important? What matter are you going to talk about? Why you think the topic is important? You need to finish your introduction with a thesis statement, which should be not more than two sentences long. It should give the reader a chance to understand what your essay is about. It should be performed in a form of a statement about the general idea of the whole paper. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget to include your personal opinion on the subject to give the reader a chance to understand what side you are on. Remember, most of the readers pay great attention to the thesis statement, so it is crucial to make it specific, focused, clear and readable, and correspond with the main goals of your argumentative essay. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget that your thesis is not a title and shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t become an absolute statement. It is the quintessence, the general idea of your work and can become your biggest strength if prepared thoughtfully. Working on the arguments Now, when your introductory section is ready, it is necessary to work on the arguments. The second section of your essay should consist evidence, which will support all of your arguments on a given topic. You should start every paragraph with the claim. It is the central part of your essay and has a great effect on the flow of your whole work. Your claims should be catchy, strong and interesting, as they form your arguments and give the reader an idea of what principles you stand for. The main goal of a claim is to determine the direction and the scope of the paper. However, it is quite simple to make such a statement: think of the subject and audience to choose a proper argument. When this part is ready, go on to providing the evidence. Every claim of your essay should be backed by evidence. This means that the reader should see that your argument is credible, valid and trustworthy. You need to process huge volumes of information to find facts, statistics, researches and so on. Once your outline is ready, you will get an idea of what claims to include to your text and you can start working on finding a proper evidence. Search for academic papers online, at libraries or ask your tutor for some materials. Remember, a claim, which is not backed with evidence, is pointless. You need to prove your point of view and give the audience a chance to see that you have completed a thorough research. They need to be sure that your arguments are strong and valid to believe you. Discrowning opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments One of the biggest mistakes any student makes, while completing an argumentative essay is that he works only on his arguments and a proper evidence. He just supports one claim after another, trying to persuade the reader to support his point of view. However, such attitude is far from a proper one, as an argumentative essay is all about giving the audience a chance to see not only your position on the matter but also to get familiar with the opposite thoughts. That is why in the third section you need to prove arguments of your opponents and try to debunk them. It is quite a simple task, as you will have access to multiple sources, both offline and online. Try to get reliable information or find out weak places in opposite arguments to uncrown them. The structure of this section is quite similar to the previous one. Your paragraphs should start with a claim or an argument followed by your evidence why the statement is incorrect. Using such techniques, you will prove the reader that your point of view is correct. While giving the reader a chance to get familiar with both sides, you help yourself to prove you are right and earn respect and trust of the audience. In addition, you will look noble because of including other opinions to your argumentative essay. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget that this section should also be backed with trustworthy sources, proper references and credible statistics. Conclusions Once your introduction and evidence sections are ready, you can take a deep breath and have a break. Pour yourself some coffee, go for a walk and relax. Once you have a proper rest, proceed with working on the final section. It is a well-known fact that your conclusions play a crucial part in the final impression from the work. However, most of the students still neglect this section, thinking that no one ever reads it. If you want to make your conclusions flawless, you need to remember that they should consist of three parts: Restatement of your arguments; A short summary of the whole work and the thesis statement; A statement of the benefits and of a positive impact of the arguments on the society. Here you can also make a sort of a warning what may happen if the reader doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t support your ideas. To make the paper look organic, try to make your conclusions the same size, as the introductory section. Never use the same phrases, as the reader may think that your paper is repetitive. Tips to remember Now, when you know how an argumentative essay is created and how its outline looks like, you can be sure to perform the task in the best possible way. However, there is always a cherry on the top and here is a list of advice, which you may use throughout the way: You need to understand the topic clearly before starting your work on an outline; Always consult your plan to make sure you include every important idea to your text; Provide only credible information, which is backed with statistics. Never make up facts, as they may be checked on a plagiarism software and you will have serious troubles; Use simple language and short sentences; Edit and proofread your paper a multiple times before you eliminate all the mistakes. As you see, an argumentative essay is not a task to be afraid of. It is just a way to provide evidence on a topic, backed with trustworthy information. To make sure you obtain high grades, simply use the outline, which was discussed in our article.
Posted by Alice Mitchell at 6:39 AM